使用红黑树实现定时器

大耗子 2021年01月25日 49次浏览

使用红黑树实现定时器

  • 使用的是nginx中使用的红黑树结构,直接从中迁移出来并修改。
  • 通过红黑树实现的时间轮,查询与插入的时间复杂度是O(Logn)。查询第一个节点只需要找树的最左边一个节点即可。
  • 定时器本身就是从头部开始取数据,红黑树就不比跳表这一数据结构匹配定时器实现的更好。

文件rbtree.h


#ifndef _NGX_RBTREE_H_INCLUDED_
#define _NGX_RBTREE_H_INCLUDED_


typedef unsigned int  ngx_rbtree_key_t;
typedef unsigned int  ngx_uint_t;
typedef int   ngx_rbtree_key_int_t;
typedef unsigned char u_char;
#ifndef NULL
    #define NULL ((void*)0)
#endif


typedef struct ngx_rbtree_node_s  ngx_rbtree_node_t;

struct ngx_rbtree_node_s {
    ngx_rbtree_key_t       key;
    ngx_rbtree_node_t     *left;
    ngx_rbtree_node_t     *right;
    ngx_rbtree_node_t     *parent;
    u_char                 color;
    u_char                 data;
};


typedef struct ngx_rbtree_s  ngx_rbtree_t;

typedef void (*ngx_rbtree_insert_pt) (ngx_rbtree_node_t *root,
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *node, ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel);

struct ngx_rbtree_s {
    ngx_rbtree_node_t     *root;
    ngx_rbtree_node_t     *sentinel;
    ngx_rbtree_insert_pt   insert;
};


#define ngx_rbtree_init(tree, s, i) \
    ngx_rbtree_sentinel_init(s); \
    (tree)->root = s;            \
    (tree)->sentinel = s;        \
    (tree)->insert = i


void ngx_rbtree_insert(ngx_rbtree_t *tree, ngx_rbtree_node_t *node);
void ngx_rbtree_delete(ngx_rbtree_t *tree, ngx_rbtree_node_t *node);
void ngx_rbtree_insert_value(ngx_rbtree_node_t *root, ngx_rbtree_node_t *node,
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel);
void ngx_rbtree_insert_timer_value(ngx_rbtree_node_t *root,
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *node, ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel);
ngx_rbtree_node_t *ngx_rbtree_next(ngx_rbtree_t *tree,
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *node);


#define ngx_rbt_red(node)               ((node)->color = 1)
#define ngx_rbt_black(node)             ((node)->color = 0)
#define ngx_rbt_is_red(node)            ((node)->color)
#define ngx_rbt_is_black(node)          (!ngx_rbt_is_red(node))
#define ngx_rbt_copy_color(n1, n2)      (n1->color = n2->color)

/* a sentinel must be black */

#define ngx_rbtree_sentinel_init(node)  ngx_rbt_black(node)


static inline ngx_rbtree_node_t *
ngx_rbtree_min(ngx_rbtree_node_t *node, ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel)
{
    while (node->left != sentinel) {
        node = node->left;
    }

    return node;
}


#endif /* _NGX_RBTREE_H_INCLUDED_ */

文件rbtree.c

#include "rbtree.h"


/*
 * The red-black tree code is based on the algorithm described in
 * the "Introduction to Algorithms" by Cormen, Leiserson and Rivest.
 */

static inline void ngx_rbtree_left_rotate(ngx_rbtree_node_t **root,
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel, ngx_rbtree_node_t *node);
static inline void ngx_rbtree_right_rotate(ngx_rbtree_node_t **root,
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel, ngx_rbtree_node_t *node);


void
ngx_rbtree_insert(ngx_rbtree_t *tree, ngx_rbtree_node_t *node)
{
    ngx_rbtree_node_t  **root, *temp, *sentinel;

    /* a binary tree insert */

    root = &tree->root;
    sentinel = tree->sentinel;

    if (*root == sentinel) {
        node->parent = NULL;
        node->left = sentinel;
        node->right = sentinel;
        ngx_rbt_black(node);
        *root = node;

        return;
    }

    tree->insert(*root, node, sentinel);

    /* re-balance tree */

    while (node != *root && ngx_rbt_is_red(node->parent)) {

        if (node->parent == node->parent->parent->left) {
            temp = node->parent->parent->right;

            if (ngx_rbt_is_red(temp)) {
                ngx_rbt_black(node->parent);
                ngx_rbt_black(temp);
                ngx_rbt_red(node->parent->parent);
                node = node->parent->parent;

            } else {
                if (node == node->parent->right) {
                    node = node->parent;
                    ngx_rbtree_left_rotate(root, sentinel, node);
                }

                ngx_rbt_black(node->parent);
                ngx_rbt_red(node->parent->parent);
                ngx_rbtree_right_rotate(root, sentinel, node->parent->parent);
            }

        } else {
            temp = node->parent->parent->left;

            if (ngx_rbt_is_red(temp)) {
                ngx_rbt_black(node->parent);
                ngx_rbt_black(temp);
                ngx_rbt_red(node->parent->parent);
                node = node->parent->parent;

            } else {
                if (node == node->parent->left) {
                    node = node->parent;
                    ngx_rbtree_right_rotate(root, sentinel, node);
                }

                ngx_rbt_black(node->parent);
                ngx_rbt_red(node->parent->parent);
                ngx_rbtree_left_rotate(root, sentinel, node->parent->parent);
            }
        }
    }

    ngx_rbt_black(*root);
}


void
ngx_rbtree_insert_value(ngx_rbtree_node_t *temp, ngx_rbtree_node_t *node,
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel)
{
    ngx_rbtree_node_t  **p;

    for ( ;; ) {

        p = (node->key < temp->key) ? &temp->left : &temp->right;

        if (*p == sentinel) {
            break;
        }

        temp = *p;
    }

    *p = node;
    node->parent = temp;
    node->left = sentinel;
    node->right = sentinel;
    ngx_rbt_red(node);
}


void
ngx_rbtree_insert_timer_value(ngx_rbtree_node_t *temp, ngx_rbtree_node_t *node,
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel)
{
    ngx_rbtree_node_t  **p;

    for ( ;; ) {

        /*
         * Timer values
         * 1) are spread in small range, usually several minutes,
         * 2) and overflow each 49 days, if milliseconds are stored in 32 bits.
         * The comparison takes into account that overflow.
         */

        /*  node->key < temp->key */
        p = ((ngx_rbtree_key_int_t) (node->key - temp->key) < 0)
            ? &temp->left : &temp->right;

        if (*p == sentinel) {
            break;
        }

        temp = *p;
    }

    *p = node;
    node->parent = temp;
    node->left = sentinel;
    node->right = sentinel;
    ngx_rbt_red(node);
}


void
ngx_rbtree_delete(ngx_rbtree_t *tree, ngx_rbtree_node_t *node)
{
    ngx_uint_t           red;
    ngx_rbtree_node_t  **root, *sentinel, *subst, *temp, *w;

    /* a binary tree delete */

    root = &tree->root;
    sentinel = tree->sentinel;

    if (node->left == sentinel) {
        temp = node->right;
        subst = node;

    } else if (node->right == sentinel) {
        temp = node->left;
        subst = node;

    } else {
        subst = ngx_rbtree_min(node->right, sentinel);

        if (subst->left != sentinel) {
            temp = subst->left;
        } else {
            temp = subst->right;
        }
    }

    if (subst == *root) {
        *root = temp;
        ngx_rbt_black(temp);

        /* DEBUG stuff */
        node->left = NULL;
        node->right = NULL;
        node->parent = NULL;
        node->key = 0;

        return;
    }

    red = ngx_rbt_is_red(subst);

    if (subst == subst->parent->left) {
        subst->parent->left = temp;

    } else {
        subst->parent->right = temp;
    }

    if (subst == node) {

        temp->parent = subst->parent;

    } else {

        if (subst->parent == node) {
            temp->parent = subst;

        } else {
            temp->parent = subst->parent;
        }

        subst->left = node->left;
        subst->right = node->right;
        subst->parent = node->parent;
        ngx_rbt_copy_color(subst, node);

        if (node == *root) {
            *root = subst;

        } else {
            if (node == node->parent->left) {
                node->parent->left = subst;
            } else {
                node->parent->right = subst;
            }
        }

        if (subst->left != sentinel) {
            subst->left->parent = subst;
        }

        if (subst->right != sentinel) {
            subst->right->parent = subst;
        }
    }

    /* DEBUG stuff */
    node->left = NULL;
    node->right = NULL;
    node->parent = NULL;
    node->key = 0;

    if (red) {
        return;
    }

    /* a delete fixup */

    while (temp != *root && ngx_rbt_is_black(temp)) {

        if (temp == temp->parent->left) {
            w = temp->parent->right;

            if (ngx_rbt_is_red(w)) {
                ngx_rbt_black(w);
                ngx_rbt_red(temp->parent);
                ngx_rbtree_left_rotate(root, sentinel, temp->parent);
                w = temp->parent->right;
            }

            if (ngx_rbt_is_black(w->left) && ngx_rbt_is_black(w->right)) {
                ngx_rbt_red(w);
                temp = temp->parent;

            } else {
                if (ngx_rbt_is_black(w->right)) {
                    ngx_rbt_black(w->left);
                    ngx_rbt_red(w);
                    ngx_rbtree_right_rotate(root, sentinel, w);
                    w = temp->parent->right;
                }

                ngx_rbt_copy_color(w, temp->parent);
                ngx_rbt_black(temp->parent);
                ngx_rbt_black(w->right);
                ngx_rbtree_left_rotate(root, sentinel, temp->parent);
                temp = *root;
            }

        } else {
            w = temp->parent->left;

            if (ngx_rbt_is_red(w)) {
                ngx_rbt_black(w);
                ngx_rbt_red(temp->parent);
                ngx_rbtree_right_rotate(root, sentinel, temp->parent);
                w = temp->parent->left;
            }

            if (ngx_rbt_is_black(w->left) && ngx_rbt_is_black(w->right)) {
                ngx_rbt_red(w);
                temp = temp->parent;

            } else {
                if (ngx_rbt_is_black(w->left)) {
                    ngx_rbt_black(w->right);
                    ngx_rbt_red(w);
                    ngx_rbtree_left_rotate(root, sentinel, w);
                    w = temp->parent->left;
                }

                ngx_rbt_copy_color(w, temp->parent);
                ngx_rbt_black(temp->parent);
                ngx_rbt_black(w->left);
                ngx_rbtree_right_rotate(root, sentinel, temp->parent);
                temp = *root;
            }
        }
    }

    ngx_rbt_black(temp);
}


static inline void
ngx_rbtree_left_rotate(ngx_rbtree_node_t **root, ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel,
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *node)
{
    ngx_rbtree_node_t  *temp;

    temp = node->right;
    node->right = temp->left;

    if (temp->left != sentinel) {
        temp->left->parent = node;
    }

    temp->parent = node->parent;

    if (node == *root) {
        *root = temp;

    } else if (node == node->parent->left) {
        node->parent->left = temp;

    } else {
        node->parent->right = temp;
    }

    temp->left = node;
    node->parent = temp;
}


static inline void
ngx_rbtree_right_rotate(ngx_rbtree_node_t **root, ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel,
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *node)
{
    ngx_rbtree_node_t  *temp;

    temp = node->left;
    node->left = temp->right;

    if (temp->right != sentinel) {
        temp->right->parent = node;
    }

    temp->parent = node->parent;

    if (node == *root) {
        *root = temp;

    } else if (node == node->parent->right) {
        node->parent->right = temp;

    } else {
        node->parent->left = temp;
    }

    temp->right = node;
    node->parent = temp;
}


ngx_rbtree_node_t *
ngx_rbtree_next(ngx_rbtree_t *tree, ngx_rbtree_node_t *node)
{
    ngx_rbtree_node_t  *root, *sentinel, *parent;

    sentinel = tree->sentinel;

    if (node->right != sentinel) {
        return ngx_rbtree_min(node->right, sentinel);
    }

    root = tree->root;

    for ( ;; ) {
        parent = node->parent;

        if (node == root) {
            return NULL;
        }

        if (node == parent->left) {
            return parent;
        }

        node = parent;
    }
}


定时器实现

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <time.h>
#if defined(__APPLE__)
#include <AvailabilityMacros.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <mach/task.h>
#include <mach/mach.h>
#endif
#include "rbtree.h"

ngx_rbtree_t              timer;
static ngx_rbtree_node_t  sentinel;

typedef struct timer_entry_s timer_entry_t;
typedef void (*timer_handler_pt)(timer_entry_t *ev);

struct timer_entry_s {
    ngx_rbtree_node_t timer;
    timer_handler_pt handler;
};

static uint32_t
current_time() {
	uint32_t t;
#if !defined(__APPLE__) || defined(AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_12_AND_LATER)
	struct timespec ti;
	clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, &ti);
	t = (uint32_t)ti.tv_sec * 1000;
	t += ti.tv_nsec / 1000000;
#else
	struct timeval tv;
	gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
	t = (uint32_t)tv.tv_sec * 1000;
	t += tv.tv_usec / 1000;
#endif
	return t;
}

int init_timer() {
    ngx_rbtree_init(&timer, &sentinel, ngx_rbtree_insert_timer_value);
    return 0;
}

void add_timer(timer_entry_t *te, uint32_t msec) {
    msec += current_time();
    printf("add_timer expire at msec = %u\n", msec);
    te->timer.key = msec;
    ngx_rbtree_insert(&timer, &te->timer);
}

void del_timer(timer_entry_t *te) {
    ngx_rbtree_delete(&timer, &te->timer);
}

void expire_timer() {
    timer_entry_t *te;
    ngx_rbtree_node_t *sentinel, *root, *node;
    sentinel = timer.sentinel;
    uint32_t now = current_time();
    for (;;) {
        root = timer.root;
        if (root == sentinel) break;
        node = ngx_rbtree_min(root, sentinel);
        if (node->key > now) break;
        printf("touch timer expire time=%u, now = %u\n", node->key, now);
        te = (timer_entry_t *) ((char *) node - offsetof(timer_entry_t, timer));
        te->handler(te);
        ngx_rbtree_delete(&timer, &te->timer);
        free(te);
    }
}

void print_hello(timer_entry_t *te) {
    printf("hello world time = %u\n", te->timer.key);
}

int main()
{
    init_timer();
    timer_entry_t *te = malloc(sizeof(timer_entry_t));
    memset(te, 0, sizeof(timer_entry_t));
    te->handler = print_hello;
    add_timer(te, 3000);
    for (;;) {
        expire_timer();
        usleep(10000);
    }
    return 0;
}